Glycemic Index Of Carbohydrate Rich Foods
The Glycemic Index (GI) was first developed in 1981 by a team headed by Dr. David Jenkins at the University of Toronto. It is a measure of the blood sugar level (not a measure of the blood insulin levels) based on consumption after fasting. As a standard, glucose has a level of 100. If a person consumes food with an index of 60, blood sugar levels would increase over a two-hour period by 60% as compared to eating the same amount of pure glucose.
The Glycemic Index is controversial since it is only valid when sugar alone is consumed. Protein and Fat slow the absorption of Carbohydrates. The index was developed as a way to determine dietary guidelines for diabetics. The American Diabetes Association has not endorsed the Glycemic Index.
According to this theory, a food with a low glycemic index (55 and below) provides a minimal increase in blood glucose, lipoprotein lipase (an enzyme that promotes fat storage), and insulin. A food is with a high glycemic Index (70 and above), reduces sports performance due to large increases in insulin production and can result in low blood sugar (hypoglycemia).
However, many fruits that are classified as having a high Glycemic Index can stimulate lipoprotein lipase production even though they are low in sugar. According to the Glycemic Index, ice cream is considered a low GI and whole wheat bread is a high GI food. Therefore, whole wheat bread would create a higher spike in blood glucose levels and a greater increase in insulin production than ice cream. So it is apparent that Glycemic Index should not be used as a single indicator.
The following foods are listed according to their Glycemic Index rating. Most of the high glycemic type carbohydrates are from refined breads and breakfast cereals, white rice, rice cakes, and French fries. Limit your consumption of high glycemic foods, which create a rise in insulin levels and reduce glucagon thereby inhibiting your body from burning body fat. Glucagon is a hormone that is made naturally in the pancreas. It releases glucose from the liver causing blood glucose levels to rise. Eat a minimum amount of high glycemic foods and combine them with proteins and fats. Remember, even low glycemic foods in large quantities can cause weight gain.
LOW GLYCEMIC FOODS 20-49 PERCENT
All bran cereals
Muesli cereal |
Yogurt (no added sugar)
MODERATE GLYCEMIC FOODS 50-69 PERCENT (LIMIT CONSUMPTION)
Cereal (low sugar)
Corn on the cob
Potatoes (red, white) |
Sucrose (Table Sugar)
Whole wheat bread (100% stone ground)
HIGH GLYCEMIC FOODS 70-100 PERCENT (LIMIT CONSUMPTION)
Breakfast cereals (refined with added sugar)
Corn syrup solids
Glucose and Glucose polymers (maltodextrin)
Hamburger and hotdog buns
Puffed rice or wheat
Soft drinks & sport drinks (added sugars)
Whole wheat bread